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Development of Environmental Law and Policy in Bangladesh

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The development of comprehensive environmental laws and policies has been a substantial accomplishment in Bangladesh, which, due to its abundant biodiversity and vulnerability to climate change, has emerged as a global priority in environmental protection.

As a result of environmental issues such as river contamination and deforestation, which have arisen over the years, the nation has enacted a comprehensive legal framework to protect its natural resources. An examination of the development and present condition of environmental legislation and policy in Bangladesh is the focus of this article, with an emphasis on the country’s dedication to sustainable development and ecological conservation.

Early Environmental Concerns of Environmental Law and Policy

Bangladesh, situated in the delta of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers, is susceptible to cyclones, floods, and riverbank erosion, among other natural disasters.

The urgency for environmental conservation was promptly acknowledged as a result of these environmental challenges. Conversely, in the latter half of the 20th century, formalization of environmental policy and law began to acquire momentum.

Key Milestones in Environmental Law Legislation

  1. The Environmental Pollution Control Ordinance, 1977: An early legislative initiative that sought to tackle environmental issues was the Environmental Pollution Control Ordinance. The primary objective of this ordinance was to regulate air and water pollution; therefore, it was a crucial measure in recognizing the necessity for environmental oversight.
  2. The Bangladesh Environmental Conservation Act, 1995: This legislation signified a substantial advancement in the field of environmental policy. The primary objectives were pollution prevention, environmental impact assessment regulation for development initiatives, and environmental conservation. The Department of Environment (DOE) was constituted by the act to supervise environmental protection activities.
  3. The Environmental Conservation Rules, 1997: The purpose of these regulations is to establish a structure for the execution of the stipulations outlined in the Environmental Conservation Act. Environmental impact assessment guidelines, emission standards, and refuse management protocols were incorporated.
  4. The Forest Act, 1927 (Amended in 2000): Conservation of forests is an indispensable component of environmental protection. In 2000, an amendment was made to the Forest Act with the objectives of fortifying forest management, augmenting sanctions for illicit harvesting, and advancing sustainable forestry methodologies.

Institutional Framework of Environmental Law

The institutional framework for environmental governance in Bangladesh involves several key entities:

  1. Department of Environment (DOE): Established under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, the DOE is the principal regulatory body responsible for implementing environmental laws, policies, and standards. It conducts environmental impact assessments and monitors compliance with environmental regulations.
  2. Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association (BELA): Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) like BELA play a crucial role in advocating for environmental protection. BELA engages in public interest litigation, raising awareness about environmental issues and pushing for policy changes.
  3. Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC): The ministry oversees environmental policies, forestry, and climate change initiatives. It plays a central role in coordinating efforts across various government bodies to address environmental challenges.
  4. National River Conservation Commission (NRCC): With Bangladesh being crisscrossed by numerous rivers, the NRCC focuses on the conservation and protection of river ecosystems. It works to prevent encroachment, pollution, and degradation of river resources.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Environmental Law

One significant aspect of environmental regulation is the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process. Under the Environmental Conservation Rules, 1997, certain projects, particularly those with potentially significant environmental impacts, are required to undergo an EIA before receiving approval. This process ensures that potential environmental consequences are thoroughly assessed, and mitigation measures are incorporated into project planning.

Challenges and Emerging Issues of Environmental Law

While Bangladesh has made commendable progress in environmental legislation, several challenges persist:

  1. Enforcement and Compliance: Ensuring widespread compliance with environmental regulations remains a challenge. Strengthening enforcement mechanisms and raising awareness about the importance of compliance are ongoing efforts.
  2. Urbanization and Industrialization: Rapid urbanization and industrial growth can lead to increased pollution and habitat loss. Balancing development needs with environmental conservation is a complex task.
  3. Climate Change Vulnerability: Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, including rising sea levels and extreme weather events. Developing adaptive strategies and securing international support for climate resilience are ongoing priorities.
  4. Waste Management: Proper waste management is crucial to prevent environmental degradation. Bangladesh is grappling with challenges related to solid waste, plastic pollution, and hazardous waste disposal.

International Collaboration

Given the transboundary nature of many environmental issues, Bangladesh actively engages in international collaborations to address shared concerns. The country participates in global initiatives related to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable development. International partnerships and agreements contribute to the exchange of knowledge, technology transfer, and financial support for environmental projects.

The Role of Civil Society and NGOs of Environmental Law

Civil society and non-governmental organizations play a vital role in environmental advocacy and awareness. Organizations like BELA work to hold the government and private entities accountable for environmental stewardship. They engage in public interest litigation, conduct research, and organize awareness campaigns to promote sustainable practices and policies.

Future Directions

As Bangladesh continues to navigate environmental challenges, the development and refinement of environmental laws and policies remain an ongoing process. The country is increasingly emphasizing the importance of integrating environmental considerations into overall development planning. Strategies for sustainable forestry, renewable energy promotion, and climate change adaptation are expected to feature prominently in future environmental policy initiatives.


The advancement of environmental legislation and policy in Bangladesh signifies an increasing acknowledgment of the critical nature of safeguarding the nation’s natural resources and reducing the environmental consequences of human actions.

Bangladesh has demonstrated significant advancements in setting forth comprehensive frameworks to tackle a wide range of environmental concerns, progressing from initial legislation that focused on pollution control to the present day. Presently, the task at hand entails bolstering enforcement mechanisms, advancing sustainable practices, and confronting emergent Environmental Law issues.

The partnership established among governmental entities, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and global allies signifies a concerted effort to guarantee an environmentally sustainable and harmonious future for Bangladesh. In the relentless pursuit of ecological preservation and progress, the nation’s unwavering commitment to environmental protection will continue to be a critical factor in attaining a state of ecological equilibrium.


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