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November 4, 2023

The Equity Capital Market (ECM): Definition and Operation in Bangladesh

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ECM stands for the equity capital market.

The equity capital market (ECM) is the venue where securities are transacted and where financial institutions assist corporations in raising equity capital. It comprises the primary market, which facilitates private placements, initial public offerings (IPOs), and warrants; and the secondary market, which involves the trading of futures, options, and other listed securities in addition to the sale of existing shares.


Equity Capital Markets (ECM) encompasses an extensive network of financial channels, markets, and institutions that collectively aid businesses in raising capital.Equity capital is acquired through the public or private issuance of company shares and is utilized to finance the growth of the enterprise.

Primary equity markets pertain to the process of securing funds through private placements and primarily comprise over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Secondary equity markets are the principal forum for public investments in corporate equity and are comprised of stock exchanges.

ECM activities include secondary offerings and bringing shares to an IPO.

A comprehension of equity capital markets

In addition to the stock market, the equity capital market (ECM) encompasses an extensive array of financial instruments and activities. The aforementioned activities consist of book building, initial public offerings (IPOs), private placements, derivatives trading, and marketing and distribution and allocation of issues. Investment banks, broker-dealers, retail investors, venture capitalists, private equity firms, and angel investors comprise the majority of ECM participants.

The ECM, in conjunction with the bond market, facilitates the transfer of funds from depositors and consumers to investors. In a market economy, the ECM, as a component of the Equity Capital Market, should, in theory, result in the efficient allocation of resources.

Primary Market for Equity

The primary equity market is subdivided into a private placement market and a primary public market, where companies issue new securities. Private placement markets involve the direct sale of unquoted shares to investors in order for corporations to raise private equity. Private companies can go public via initial public offerings (IPOs), while listed companies can issue new equity through seasoned issues, on the primary public market.

Market for Secondary Equities

The secondary market, which does not involve the creation of new capital, is the term “stock market” that the majority of individuals associate with it. It comprises stock exchanges and over-the-counter (OTC) markets, in which a network of merchants trades equities without the involvement of an exchange as an intermediary. It is where existing shares are purchased and sold.

The Pros and Cons of Capital Raising in the Equity Markets

Companies that raise capital via equity markets gain access to a number of benefits. The initial one is an improved ratio of debt to equity. Future expansion will not necessitate the use of debt markets with exorbitant interest rates by corporations.

In comparison to debt markets, equity markets are comparatively more adaptable and offer a wider array of financing alternatives to facilitate expansion. In certain situations, particularly in private placement, equity markets also facilitate the incorporation of senior colleagues’ governance and expertise by entrepreneurs and company founders. This will aid businesses in expanding into new products and markets, or it will offer essential advice.

Capital-raising in equity markets is not without its drawbacks, however. The process of reaching a public offering, for instance, can be lengthy and costly. The process involves a multitude of participants, which multiplies the expenses and duration necessary to introduce a company to the market.

Furthermore, there is perpetual scrutiny. Although equity market investors exhibit a higher risk tolerance in comparison to debt market investors, their primary concern remains with maximizing returns. Consequently, disillusioned investors may divest from a company that has consistently generated unfavorable returns, precipitating a precipitous decline in its market capitalization.

FAQs on Equity Capital Market

Debt Capital and Equity Capital Market, respectively.

Organizations endeavor to acquire capital to support their operational needs and expansion. In order to obtain capital, equity funding entails the exchange of residual ownership shares of a company. In contrast, debt funding is predicated on borrowing, in which the financiers receive repayment of principal and interest without acquiring any ownership stake. Generally speaking, equity capital is costlier and offers fewer tax advantages compared to debt capital. However, it provides a substantial degree of operational flexibility and reduced liability in the event of business failure.

The calculation of Equity Capital Market is as follows.

Equity, also known as shareholders’ equity, represents the net discrepancy that exists between the total liabilities and total assets of a given company.The market capitalization of a publicly traded company can be determined by multiplying the share price by the total number of outstanding shares.

What Varieties Comprise Equity Capital Market?

Equity can be classified according to a variety of dimensions. In contrast to publicly traded shares, which are transacted on secondary markets, private equity involves the placement of its investments through primary markets. Although common stock is the most prevalent type of equity, corporations may also issue allocations to preferred stock and other share classes.

What is the distinction between equity and capital?

Capital comprises any resource that an organization possesses and employs for productive endeavors, including currency. Capital is not limited to equity.


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