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Land Acquisition Legislation in Bangladesh

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Land acquisition, a process by which the government acquires private land for public purposes, plays a pivotal role in the economic development of Bangladesh, a nation grappling with a burgeoning population and swift urbanization.

This article meticulously examines the complexities of land acquisition legislation in Bangladesh, scrutinizing its historical backdrop, essential components, challenges, and the intricate equilibrium between advancing development and upholding individual rights.

Historical Background of Land Acquisition in Bangladesh

The origins of land acquisition laws in Bangladesh can be traced back to the British colonial era. During this period, the British enacted the Land Act of 1894, a legislative framework that laid the groundwork for subsequent land acquisition regulations. Post-independence in 1971, Bangladesh inherited and retained the Land Act of 1894, albeit with amendments to align it with the newly formed nation’s requirements.

Fundamental Aspects of Land Acquisition Legislation

3.1 Land Acquisition Act of 1894

The Land Act of 1894 serves as the legal foundation for land acquisition in Bangladesh, with crucial components including:

3.1.1 Public Purpose

Land must serve a “public purpose,” encompassing infrastructure development, urban planning, or public amenities. The definition of public purpose has evolved over time to adapt to the changing needs of society.

3.1.2 Compensation

The Act delineates the principles for determining compensation for acquired land. Compensation must be equitable and just, taking into account market rates and the intrinsic value of the land.

3.1.3 Due Process

Procedures for the acquisition process, such as public notices, hearings, and providing affected parties with the opportunity to present objections, are stipulated in the Act.

3.1.4 Urgency Provision

Under specific circumstances, the government can evoke the urgency provision to expedite the acquisition process. However, this provision has been subject to controversy due to potential misuse.

3.2 Amendments and Reforms

Over the years, the Land Acquisition Act has undergone amendments and reforms to address emerging challenges. Reforms have concentrated on augmenting transparency, elevating compensation rates, and ensuring a more inclusive and participatory process.

Challenges in Land Legislation

4.1 Disparities in Compensation

A persistent challenge involves disparities in compensation rates. Determining fair compensation that harmonizes the interests of both the government and affected landowners remains a intricate task.

4.2 Relocation and Rehabilitation

The displacement of communities due to land necessitates robust relocation and rehabilitation measures. Ensuring that affected individuals receive sufficient support and seamlessly integrate into new communities is a pivotal aspect of the legislation.

4.3 Ambiguities in “Public Purpose”

The broad definition of “public purpose” has led to ambiguities, occasionally resulting in legal disputes. Striking a balance between development goals and individual rights requires a nuanced understanding of what constitutes a legitimate public purpose.

4.4 Procedural Bottlenecks

Procedural complexities and delays in the acquisition process can impede timely project implementation. Streamlining procedures while ensuring due process is a delicate balance that legislative reforms seek to address.

Striking a Balance: Development and Rights

5.1 Community Engagement

Fostering community engagement in the land process is imperative. Meaningful consultations, transparent communication, and addressing community concerns contribute to a more inclusive and equitable process.

5.2 Technology Integration

Integrating technology into land acquisition processes can enhance transparency and efficiency. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping and online platforms for information dissemination empower stakeholders with real-time data.

5.3 Social Impact Assessments

Conducting thorough Social Impact Assessments (SIAs) is increasingly acknowledged as a best practice. SIAs aid in identifying potential social and environmental consequences, enabling informed decision-making in the acquisition process.

Case Studies: Land Acquisition in Bangladesh

6.1 Padma Bridge Project

The Padma Bridge project, a strategic infrastructure initiative, involved extensive land . Compensation processes and community resettlement efforts became focal points, highlighting the challenges and complexities inherent in large-scale projects.

6.2 Dhaka Metro Rail Project

The Dhaka Metro Rail project, designed to address the capital’s transportation needs, also encountered land acquisition challenges. Balancing the urgency of the project with the rights of affected landowners required careful legal navigation.

International Comparisons

Comparing land acquisition laws in Bangladesh with international models provides insights into global best practices. Learning from successful frameworks and addressing shortcomings contributes to the ongoing evolution of Bangladesh’s land acquisition legislation.

Future Prospects and Reforms

As Bangladesh continues its economic development journey, the necessity for land acquisition will persist. Anticipating future challenges, reforms may focus on increasing compensation rates, refining the definition of public purpose, and leveraging technology for efficient processes.


Land acquisition legislation in Bangladesh is a dynamic field, reflecting the nation’s progression from colonial rule to a rapidly developing economy. Striking the delicate balance between development imperatives and individual rights requires continuous reforms, community engagement, and the integration of best practices.

The legal frameworks surrounding land acquisition stand as a testament to Bangladesh’s commitment to responsible and inclusive development.


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